Author Topic: Modelling waste disposal as open dump  (Read 6752 times)

Offline dlopez

  • New Member
  • *
  • Posts: 1
    • View Profile
Modelling waste disposal as open dump
« on: April 01, 2013, 21:13 »
Hi everybodu,
I am interesting in modelling an open dump as final waste destination. Has someone an ideia how can I make it? The datebank of Umberto can simulate a sanitary landfill. But I want to compare landfill versus open dump.
I appreciate your contribuition.

Offline pbeilschmidt

  • Administrator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 586
    • View Profile
Re: Modelling waste disposal as open dump
« Reply #1 on: April 02, 2013, 13:09 »
Hello dlopez,

(para resumo da resposta em Português veja próximo post abaixo)

this is an interesting topic. I assume that you are using ecoinvent v2.2 data in Umberto, and when you say that the "database of Umberto can simulate a sanitary landfill", I think you mean that you can use a sanitary landfill module from the ecoinvent database and include it in your LCA model. Is that correct?

ecoinvent data contains several waste treatment modules for disposal of different materials, but generally speaking the treatment path is either "sanitary landfill" or "waste incineration". Now, as far as I understand your question, you are looking at a third option, which would be "waste to open/wild dump".

As far as I know there is no such thing as an "open dump" module in ecoinvent, that could be readily used to represent this type of waste disposal. This is probably due to current environmental legislation in Europe, that prohibits wild dumps, that the experts from ecoinvent Centre never bothered to study this option and provide such a dataset. (Can anyone else comment on this and give more insight?)

So the question would be, if you can create an open waste dump model/module yourself.

One important question before doing this, is whether you are thinking of the disposal of one specific type of waste to an open dump, in order to incorporate it into a specific product LCA (e.g. LCA for tyres, a share of used tyres is thrown onto an open dump site at the End-of-Life), or if you require a more generic LCI dataset that is an average of, say, 1 tonne of (mixed) solid waste being dumped. Such a generic module/say, "disposal, municipal solid waste, 22.9% water, to wild open dump" would be the equivalent of the datasets "disposal, municipal solid waste, 22.9% water, to sanitary landfill" and "disposal, municipal solid waste, 22.9% water, to municipal incineration", both of which work with a specific mix of waste types and a certain amount of water content. Doing the open dump waste module for one specific material would be - in my opinion - the easier task, since one could limit oneself to studying the decomposition of the material over time and estimate the emissions to air, to soil and to water.

Are you studying an open dump site in Brazil? Do you have specific data available? I guess that climate (temperature, humidity) and soil characteristics are decisive parameters to estimate the actual emissions from the dump site.

Another possibility to create a dataset for an open dump would be to derive it from the sanitary landfill dataset. I understand that when you talk about an open dump, there is no such thing as a lining system, no leachate capture, no gas recovery. So the question would be, how much more emissions to air, to soil and to water can be expected, if there is no such capture on a sanitary landfill. On the other side you would not have to consider building and maintenance and infrastructure expenses, if you dump in the wild. (I assume that also you don't want to consider a remediation of the wild dump site that will most likely have to take place in the future...).

The two Excel tools provided by the ecoinvent Centre on the data documentation CD can be a starting point for you to understand how the waste treatment modules have been established. You may want to work with these to analyse and understand the functional relationship between waste input and emissions. The tools are well documented in reports No. 13-I through 13-4, authored by Gabor Doka.

I am not aware of any LCA studies that included open dumps, but a quick search revealed that there might be some interesting stuff out there (e.g. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18445517) worth considering.

Hope that helped.

Regards,
------------------------
Peter Müller-Beilschmidt
myUmberto Moderator
ifu Hamburg GmbH

Offline pbeilschmidt

  • Administrator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 586
    • View Profile
Re: Modelling waste disposal as open dump
« Reply #2 on: April 02, 2013, 13:47 »
Olá dlopez,

alguns puntos do meu post acima em Português, para facilitar:

* a base de dados ecoinvent (na versão v2.2) não contem módulos predefinidos para aterros selvagens (tipo "bota fora"). Na Europa este tipo de aterro está prohibído, por isso raramente é uma opção viável a considerar num ACV aquí.
* você deve provavelmente modelar propriamente o aterro selvagem, tendo em conta a situação específica do aterro (aterro no Brazil?, comportamento do lixo relativo à temperatura e à humedade, tipo de solo, etc.). Por isso é preciso ter acesso à dados específicos e tentar descrever a relação funcional entre a "entrada" de lixo e as emissões par o ar, o solo e para o agua.
* as folhas Excel que fazem parte da documentação (no CD vermelho e tambem accessível no website do ecoinvent) permitem analísar como eles fazem o cálculo das emissões ligadas dependente da composição do lixo entrando (um kilograma de um material, uma tonelada de lixo mixto municipal).
* Neste contexto sería importante saber se você pensa em críar um módulo do aterro selvagem para um tipo de materíal específico (p.ex. pneus usados depositados num aterro selvagem) para integrar-o num ACV de um produto, o se você pensa em fazer um módulo do aterro selvagem mais genérico que trabalha com uma composição média do lixo (papel, metais, plásticos, biodegradáveis, e uma fracção de água). Os datasets "disposal, municipal solid waste, 22.9% water, to sanitary landfill" e "disposal, municipal solid waste, 22.9% water, to municipal incineration" são deste tipo, e podem ser utilizados como aproximação na fase de fim-de-vida em diferentes ACVs como "médio" para qualquer típo de resíduo sólido municipal.
* O primeiro caso (só um tipo de materíal específico) provavelmente será mais fácil a modelar, porque com à ausencia de qualquer técnica de protecção do solo (sistema de revestimento) e da água (recolha dos lixiviados) no aterro selvagem e sem controlo das emissões de gases, você poderia talvez assumir uma decomposição completa do material num determinado periodo de tempo.
* Não sei se existem estudos de ACV publicados que já integraram a opção aterro selvagem em que você poder encontrar mais "inspirações" para sua tarefa ... tambem desconheço estudos Brasileiros sobre aterros salvagens que contêem dados relativos as emissões...

Sorte para o seu projeto!
« Last Edit: April 03, 2013, 08:52 by pbeilschmidt »
------------------------
Peter Müller-Beilschmidt
myUmberto Moderator
ifu Hamburg GmbH